The first source of artificial lighting was a bonfire or hearth in a cave of primitive man. The production of kerosene by distillation of oil inspired inventors to create kerosene lamps. copper, brass, and bronze oil lamps appeared. The need for local lighting arose with the development of handicrafts. Optical radiation is generated by exposure to gas
discharge on the phosphor composition deposited on the walls of the flask.
The life of these lamps is 4–10 times higher than ordinary ones. LEDs last 50 times longer than incandescent lamps with minimal energy consumption, do not flicker or distort color reproduction. Olive oil or molten fat was poured into the burned bowls, then the wick was lowered there and the free end was lit. The first spotlights were torches – sticks wrapped in tarry tow. Environmental risks make it difficult to dispose of waste material.
At the end of the twentieth century began to produce fluorescent lamps. in ancient Greece. The source of light here was a hot tungsten filament through which electric current flowed.
Since the mid-twentieth century, incandescent lamps have gradually replaced brighter and more economical gas-discharge light sources.
In the earliest models, current was passed through a pair of mercury, sodium, placed in a sealed flask. The light became brighter, reflected in every facet of the crystal pendants.
Gas and kerosene lamps. From the 17th century, elaborate metal chandeliers with a multi-row arrangement of candles came into fashion. Due to the capillary effect, the oil rose upward along the wick and burned. To illuminate the room over the entire height, supports and suspensions were used.
Stationary lampidary lamps were equipped with tripods, which were later replaced by candelabra.
In public places, multi-track lights (shandal, menorah) were installed.
Portable lamps with a flammable liquid were called lamps and lampions.
Candles and chandeliers. In poor houses, sparks were lit – long chips on a stand.
Clay oil lamps were invented in the III millennium BC. The main
disadvantages – strong flicker, noise and chromatic aberration.
LED lighting is a 21st century technology that virtually eliminates the heating of conductive elements. Serial production, established in 1856 in the USA, took as a basis the design with a flat wick, proposed by Rudolf Dietmar from Vienna. Gas fuel has been used to refuel lamps since the 15th century, but gas lanterns and horns were widely used in the early 20th century when coal gasification was mastered. In the 1st millennium BC e. Greasy and wax candles began to be made in Ancient Rome 2000 years ago. e. In galleries of medieval castles, torches were hung on the walls in the manner of sconces. Later, to increase traction and protect the flame from the wind, the burner was removed under a glass cover.
Electric lighting The invention of incandescent lamps by Thomas Edison in 1879 gave rise to the era of electricity.